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Amazon.com: The Papacy: An Encyclopedia: 3 - For a full list of entries and contributors, a generous selection of sample entries, and more, visit the Papacy: An Encyclopedia website. Routledge is pleased to publish this acclaimed resource in a revised, expanded, and updated English language edition, translated by a team of experts in papal history.. Papacy - Papacy: Papacy, the office and jurisdiction of the bishop of Rome, the pope (Latin papa, from Greek pappas, “father”), who presides over the central government of the Roman Catholic Church, the largest of the three major branches of Christianity. The term pope was originally applied to all the bishops in. Pope - The pope (Latin: papa from Greek: πάππας pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and ex officio leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has also been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state entirely enclaved within Rome, Italy.The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 . History of the papacy - The history of the papacy, the office held by the pope as head of the Roman Catholic Church, according to Catholic doctrine, spans from the time of Peter to the present day.. During the Early Church, the bishops of Rome enjoyed no temporal power until the time of Constantine.After the fall of Rome (the "Middle Ages", about 476), the papacy was influenced by the temporal rulers of the . CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Pope - The bishop of Rome, successor of St. Peter, chief of the whole Church, and the Vicar of Christ on earth. CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Pope Benedict IX - Sources. The most important source for the history of the first nine popes who bore the name of Benedict is the biographies in the Liber Pontificalis, of which the most useful edition is that of Duchesne, Le Liber Pontificalis (Paris, 1886-92), and the latest that of Mommsen, Gesta Pontif.. Indulgence - Indulgence: Indulgence, a distinctive feature of the penitential system of both the Western medieval and the Roman Catholic Church that granted full or partial remission of the punishment of sin. The granting of indulgences was predicated on two beliefs. First, in the sacrament of penance it did not suffice to. Saffron - The saffron crocus grows best in climates like that of the Mediterranean maquis or the North American chaparral, where hot, dry summer winds blow across the land.However, saffron can live through temperatures as cold as −10 °C (14.0 °F), and short periods of snow..